According to the secondary analysis of a randomized control trial results Latino children who reduced added sugar intake by the equivalent of 1 can of soda per day or increased fiber intake by the equivalent of a half cup of beans had improvements in key risk factors for type 2 diabetes. The goal of this study was to determine if reduced added sugar intake and increased fiber intake were associated with improvements in metabolic outcomes related to type 2 diabetes mellitus risk. At a lifestyle and metabolic measures laboratory at the General Clinical Research Center, 54 overweight Latino adolescents were randomized to 1 of 3 interventions lasting 16 weeks: control, nutrition classes, or nutrition plus strength training classes. Mean age was 15.5 ± 1 years. The primary study endpoints were dual energy x-ray absorptiometry measurement of body composition, magnetic resonance imaging determination of visceral adipose tissue, oral glucose tolerance test, and determination of glucose and insulin incremental area under the curve; intravenous glucose tolerance test measurement of insulin sensitivity, acute insulin response, and disposition index; and 3-day records of dietary intake. More than half (55%) of all participants decreased added sugar intake (mean decrease, 47 g/day) and 59% increased fiber intake (mean increase, 5 g/day). In all intervention groups, including control patients, percentages of those who changed sugar and fiber intake were similar. Compared with participants who did not change their diet, those with decreased intake of added sugar had improvements in glucose incremental area under the curve (-15% vs 3%; P = .049) and in insulin incremental area under the curve (-33% vs -9%; P = .02). Participants who increased fiber intake had improved body mass index (-2% vs 2%; P = .01) and visceral adipose tissue (-10% vs no change; P = .03). Limitations of this study include secondary analysis, lack of blinding, and possible Hawthorne effect.